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membru din 4 mai 2011

Entropion

UNIVERSITY OF AGRICOL SCIENCES AND VETERINARY MEDICINE OF BUCHAREST

FACULTY OF VETERINARY MEDICINE
SURGERY DEPARTMENT
105,Splaiul Independenţei street, sector 5, Bucharest, ROMANIA
Phone: 0040 21.4.11.27.87; 0040 21.4.10.14.05;
Fax : 0040.21.4.11.98.02




Scientific report of the Surgery Department from the Veterinary Medicine University regarding specific medical aspects encountered at the roumanian mioritic shepherd and carpathian shepherd dog breeds , necessary to be known during the process of the international recognition of the two breeds .

In Romania the dog research activity has very rarely been executed and only at the Veterinarian Universities throughout the country and in Bucharest and never within the chinological clubs existent until until 1998.
The carachteristics of the Romanian mioritic and carpathian shepherd dog breeds and also the development of the national chinological sciences after 1998 , have made necessary the appearance and development of studies, concepts, technics and new methods of working with these aspects.
In this way , The University for Agricultural science and veterinarian medicine from Bucharest , with the help of FMV Bucharest , began in 1998 a collaboration on multiple levels with the National Club for Romanian Shepherds-CNCCR from Bucharest , having both the common goal of international recognition of the two dog breeds .
This organisation has been chosen due to its specific non profit activity, its purpose regarding the recognition of the two breeds, its unique character, being the only romanian chinological department specialized for these two breeds.
Institution especialised in these two dog , breeds but also due to its official nominee coming from the Department of Diet and Agriculture through the order 17178/1998 , through which the department recognizes the CNCCR as being the only habilitated institution able to handle all problems related to the romanian shepherd breeds , both internal and international .
Following the official visit of the president of the Standard and Recognision Comission of the International Chinological Federation – dr. Jean Maurice Paschoud in december 1998 , during the scientific conferences led by him and which took place at the University of Veterinary Medicine with the main theme of scientific realization of the files for the international recognition of the two dog breeds together with members of the University desks and the National Club of the Romanian Shepherds-CNCCR , a series of important aspects were pointed out which need to be followed in the process of creating the files for recognition from the medical and scientific points of view . The conclusions drawn were put into practice during the National Program of Selection and Reproduction realized between 1999 and the current year by the University and the CNCCR .
From the point of view of the Surgery Clinic , this program has materialized in the following aspects :
1. The creation of the techno-medical base and the technics for measuring the parameters of the two dog breeds starting 04.04.1998 based on criterias required by the International Canine Federation and they were a national premiere .
2. The creation of databases together with the National Club of Romanian Shepherds regarding the number and quality of authorized breeders and their products. These databases were obtained by verifying a number of 2675 dogs belonging to both dog breeds , from the point of view of the hip dysplasia , different forms of rahitism, ophthalmic heterocromia, progressive retinian atrophy, epilepsy forms etc
3. Creation of counciling methods for owners and breeders of such dogs , regarding the advantages of using authorized breeders , for the purpose of dropping and eliminating risk factors regarding the appearance and/or perpetuation of genetic transmission diseases.
4. Creation of blood lines under strict medical control with the purpose of avoiding frequent fraudes met under this aspect in romanian chinology
5. Publication of scientific articles in specialised media for the purpose of growing the popularity of this program and its advantages through the extention to other dog breeds.
6. Training , recognition and annual recycling of referees and candidates for referee job for the two dog breeds from within the National Club , is being made with the direct involvement of a representative for the University , in the purpose of raising the level of theoretical and practical training of the referees .


1. The creation of the techno-medical base and the technics for measuring the parameters of the two dog breeds starting 04.04.1998 in a national premiere in Romania .

The first attempt of standardization of the two dog breeds, cates back to 1984, when the members of the Iasi University of Veterinary Medicine together with the National Club of Breeding , Selection and Agricultural Reproduction under the command of the Department of Agriculture and Diet – Suceava County Branch , initiated in Suceava the first standardization action for the two dog breeds, by making some measurements on a non-specified number of dogs from that area .
Unfortunately, even though the petition for recording these first standards was recorded and published in the Official Monitor – the Government’s official newspaper , it was not accompanied by the text of the standards.
The first correct attempt of standardization from the scientific point of view has been made at the first stage of the National Championship , organized by the National Club together with the University of Veterinary Medicine in 04.04.1998 , the date when members of the board , took zoometric measurements on a number of 436 dogs belonging to both breeds.
Having obtaining the measurements results , the first official standards were made and recorded by the National Club and the Department of Agriculture and Diet according to the requirements of the International Canine Federation FCI.
This way, a number of 36 definitive parameters have been created of which we can mention : garrot and back height, nose length, skull, ears, neck, body, members and bones composing them : hook, tibia, femur etc and tail; angulations of articulations, skull dimensions; nose, skull,chest, thoraw and pelvian biped large; length, density, colors and type of hair; the aspects of tail; form and color of the eyes and the frequency of ophthalmic heterochromia, eyelids, nose and lips depigmentation, third – eyelid protrusion< number, forms, color and dimension of nails and the procent and number of posteriors rudimentars fingers; forms and dimension of pows; number and the aspects of the teeth

2. The creation of databases together with the National Club of Romanian Shepards regarding the number and quality of authorized breeders and their products. These databases were obtained by verifying a number of _______ dogs belonging to both dog breeds , from the point of view of the hip dysplasia , different forms of rahitism, ocular heterochromia, progressive retinal atrophy, epylepsia

The control of the entropion

Entropion, inward rolling or turning of the eyelid margin, is a common eyelid disorder.
It may by congenital, spastic or acquired; the congenital entropion can by an hereditary disease in roumanian Shepard : 12 – 15% in mioritic roumanian Shepard and 7-9% in carpatin roumanian Shepard
Clinical signs : epiphora, blepharospasm ( the eyelid surface may be excoriated and white from constant with tears), rubbing at the affected area, corneal ulceration and vascularization in chronic cases, purulent conjunctivitis, rolling of the lid.
Congenital entropion usually affects both eyes, although occasionally only eye is affected.
The whole length of the lid may be affected in severe cases, but the affected area is usually restricted to one portion of the margin; the upper lid is less commonly affected than the lower; congenital entropion in dogs frequently affects the lateral parts of both the upper and lower lid.
The treatement in congenital entropion is only surgical and is necessary to by made in ophtalmological clinic by a veterinary ophtalmologist with experience
In nature , the subjects with congenital entropion not surviving because they made the secondary infections in the eyes.


3. Creation of counciling methods for owners and breeders of such dogs , regarding the advantages of using authorized breeders , for the purpose of dropping and eliminating risk factors regarding the appearance and/or perpetuation of genetic transmission diseases.

The initiative of the National Club of Romanian Shepherds to introduce in a national premiere , as a form in the reproduction activity , the mating contract - the birth of the puppies was big step in raising the safety for the mating of the dogs registered as being parents . The idea of registering this form for the insemination type : natural, artificial, both methods, permitted the representatives of our board to verify and authenticate the missing of congenital anomalies or ereditary diseases before the mating , when they took place at the gynecology – obstetrics clinic of the University of Veterinary Medicine.
The National Club of Romania Shepherds representative would take part in the medical exam , certifying through his signature both the checking of the partners as well as the execution of the mating along with the owner’s signatures. Even from the beginning the owner of a romanian shepherd is guided to the club by our clinic for verification and recording of the growing parameters, corect medication for growth and maintnance .
At the clinic the owner is informed about the advantages and disadvantages of different methods of treatment and profilaxia of illnesses specific to canine breeds by the clinic’s qualified personal and a preliminary check for these illnesses and anomalies with ereditary transmission is made.
The surgery clinic’s representative often explains the importance of this act from the medical and scientific point of view , presenting to the romanian shepherd owner the entire cycle of activities that take place in the clinic and help both the animal and the owner to become familiar with the presence of the referee and doctor , avoiding this way the typical stress of such an encounter. This way , one of the problems raised in the maintanance of the specimens of romanian shepherds has been explained and was understood . This consists of the tendency of appearance for ear infections, as a result of unappropiate cleaning of the ear’s ……..
Another method adopted together with the National Club of Romanian Shepherds , by our surgery clinic was that of finding the optimal ways of reducing the appearance of specimens from the romanian shepherd breed with no hair on their nose and paws, fact which is considered to be an eliminating factor in reproduction and is frequently found in breeding house: in Brillantim , Radauti, Gheorghe Cretu House, Greycib, and specimens coming from breeders and owners (shepards) not registered with the National Club or Romanian Shepherds from Moldova area and Transilvania.
This disease is corroborated with others genetic diseases such as : ocular heterocromia- Gheorghe Cretu House and/or depigmentation of the iris and eyelids in other house/ dogs breeding


4. Creation of blood lines under strict medical control with the purpose of avoiding frequent fraudes met under this aspect in romanian …….
Through it’s activity reproduction control , the National Club of Romanian Shepards, having at its disposal the scientific and technological means to investigate and perform artificial inseminations provided by the gynecology – obstetrics clinic, was able to form ____ lines of blood on 3 known generations and without consangvinisation and ____ lines of consangvinisation destined to the amelioration of the breed . Also , with the participation of the Surgery Clinic representatives , the National Club of Romanian Shepherds , has significantly raised the level of confidence in these institutions and in the quality of the performances in a time of a low level of trust in reproduction activities made by other canine organization which are full of errors and fakes in statements regarding the ….. like it is stated in the note of the minister of agriculture from the year 2000 or by comparing different papers of origin emitted for romanian shepherd dogs by organizations that are not authorized by the Romanian Government and recognized or not by the International Canine Federation . To understand how hard it is to put ,in the context of the canine movement in Romania excepting the National Club of Romanian Shepherds , a diagnostic regarding the hip dysplasia, we can only think that X rays and papers that cannot be verified for the presented dogs, emitted by unspecialised doctors.
So we think, that at least for the selection of specimens with hip dysplasia in Romania for the German Shepard canine breed , it would theoreticaly be necessary for the german method to be adopted. The animal would be considered having hip dysplasia if three specialists would give the verdict and two would say the animal is healthy.
Unfortunately , the lack of will to work together shown by the clinics of the University of Veterinary Medicine lead to the apearance of a very large number of specimens at other dog breeds with major genetic malformations and that is why we consider an example this partnership between the University of Veterinary Medicine and the National Club of Romanian Shepards and the breeders and owners of romanian shepherds.
Between 1998 and 2003, after verifying , with these procedures , only in the case of the University of Veterinary Medicine , the surgery clinic verify the quality at the reproductions subjects last of 1200 dogs roumanian shepherds, the National Club of Romanian Shepherds , was able to give the recommandation for reproduction R(++) and implcitly confirmed the obtaining of titles for National Champion for number of ___ males and females; the recommandation for assisted reproduction R(-) to a number of 400 reproductive males and excluded from reproduction 120 male specimens (under standard height, quality and insuficient coverage of hair, ocular heterochromia)
A number of 2650 of specimens of romanian shepherds and 1234 carpathian shepherds are registered with the National Club of Romanian Shepherds. All these dogs were registered from 1984.
This way were created , based on verifications of reproductive quality a number of consangvined lines destined exclusively for breeds amelioration and a number of ____ lines on 3 generations without consangvinisation destined to realizing the requirements of the International Canine Federation for the file of international recognize.



5. Publication of the scientific issues in the speciality revue for mediatisation at these program and the advantage in other dogs breeds.

Lately, within the University of Veterinary Medicine have developed like a necessity, small animals specializations, the first place being occupied by canine pathology.
If we add to all this to the fact that the university of Bucharest was proposed to be accredited in the European Community and for that in the analytical program were introduced new disciplines in order to make more uniform the teaching process such as Small animals clinic. It is obvious the increasing interest for doctors specialization in canine pathology and for a discipline taught separately in this field.
At the last National Congress of Veterinary Medicine the number of the works on small animal pathology represented over 50% of all the works presented.
Presently, the teaching stuff of the University is involved in different activities that should make popular pets pathology using the mass media such as two permanent TV shows and 3 permanent radio broadcasts. There are also several publications having as subject canine pathology, as for example: two weekly magazines having informative and publicist character and two monthly magazines with scientific character.
Once or twice a month the University is host of several seminaries on small animals pathology, those seminaries being sponsored by firms distributing medicaments and animal food. Lectors of the University and invitees from other countries such as Hungary, Belgium, France, Slovakia, Austria or Poland are invited to sustain these seminaries.


6. Training , recognition and annual recycling of referees and candidates for referee job for the two dog breeds from within the National Club , is being made with the direct involvmment of a representative for the University , in the purpose of raising the level of theoretical and practical training of the referees

Right from the beginning of the preparation of the candidates for referees positions and internal / international referees of the National Club of Romanian Shepherds , certified for romanian shepherd breeds go through a course of preparation and information at the surgery clinic , whose role is to inform correctly and to offer a knowledge package , scientific and medical, strictly necessary for the good development of the activities as an authorized canine referee for these two dog breeds. During the recycling and annual exams the referees of the National Club of Romanian Shepard have to go through a quiz with questions from anatomy, canine pathology made up by the clinic’s specialists.
In the purpose ot growing the relational interactivity between the Surgery Clinic of the University of Veterinary Medicine and the National Club of Romanian Shepherds , a member of the clinic was certified to be an internal referee and two other members as candidates for a referee job for the two dog breeds dating back to 1998.






Head of the Surgery Department ,
I. Miclăuş DVM, PhD
details of mioritic eye
details of mioritic eye


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